Quantum computing uses quantum mechanics to carry out intricate calculations at an unheard-of rate. Qubits are the fundamental units of this tech trend, and they may represent several states (i.e. a qubit is capable of simultaneously being both 0 and 1), all thanks to the concepts of superposition and entanglement. In a bid to bolster AI development, over 60 countries have adopted strategies and policies pertaining to the field and are deploying teams to carry oout research and understand the risks associated with AI.
A Brief History
To explain the wave-particle duality seen at atomic sizes, modern quantum theory was created in the 1920s and digital computers were introduced in the decades that followed to take the position of human computers for laborious calculations.
Both fields had practical applications during World War II; quantum physics was crucial for the nuclear physics employed in the Manhattan Project, and computers played a significant part in cryptography during the conflict. Quantum mechanics and computer science fields started to merge when physicists used quantum mechanical models to solve computational issues and switched out digital bits for qubits.
How Do Quantum Computers Work?
In traditional computers, the bits encode the inputs and do not share any information with one another. They operate on a small set of inputs, employ an algorithm, and give a result. A quantum computer is unique in that the qubits interact with one another when data are input into them, enabling numerous calculations to be performed at once. This explains why quantum computers can operate at much higher speeds than traditional computers.
Sectors that gain the most from quantum computing:
Research predicts that the following four industries will profit from quantum computing the most. The total value at risk for these sectors might reach $1.3 trillion, to be conservative.
Pharmaceuticals: The study and creation of molecular structures in the biopharmaceuticals sector could be revolutionized by quantum computing. Thanks to quantum technologies, drug development will become more effective and less reliant on trial and error.
Automotives: Quantum computing has potential applications for the automobile sector in research and development, product design, supply chain management, production, mobility, and traffic control. For instance, using quantum computing to optimize intricate multi-robot processes like welding, glueing, and painting could lower production costs.
Chemicals: Catalyst design could be improved with the help of quantum computing, which could result in cost reductions over current production methods. Innovative catalysts might potentially make it possible to break down carbon for the use of CO2 or replace petrochemicals with more environmentally friendly feedstock.
Finance: The applications of quantum computing in banking are still some time off. In finance, portfolio and risk management are where quantum computing holds the most long-term promise. Quantum-optimized loan portfolios emphasizing collateral might be one illustration, enabling lenders to enhance their products.
Challenges to overcome
One significant difficulty is “decoherence,” the breakdown of the superposition that gives quantum computers their computational edge. Real-world quantum computers are challenging to build because qubits are more noise-sensitive the more they are used.
Quantum error correction, which is akin to error-correcting codes in classical computing and communication, is one potential way to make quantum computers more resilient to disruptions. There are still some technological issues to be solved, particularly when scaling up quantum computers for large-scale activities, as error correction in quantum computers requires numerous qubits.